30 November 2016
Hanspeter Wyss, Senior Program Officer, Washington DC, KNOMAD, World Bank
the links between climate change, remittances and poverty in the
context of development is of interest. Climate change poses one of the
greatest threats to human communities, ecosystems, and development
goals. Vulnerability to climate risks, is often highest in the world's
poorest communities. The potential loss of ecosystem services threatens
the livelihoods of many marginal populations, and a lack of resources in
poorer communities exacerbates sensitivity and severely limits adaptive
capacity. As such, remittances could provide a safety net through
consumption smoothing to migrant households as a coping mechanism during
climate induced events and disasters. It can also build resilience
through ex-ante preparedness and ex-post recovery.
significantly changing circumstances, both slow onset (e.g. drought) and
extremes (e.g. floods, tropical storms), some affected people will
succeed in adapting either locally or through migration, while others
will become entrapped (involuntarily) or remain immobile (voluntarily)
in at-risk areas. Poor households with low capacity and poor entitlement
to livelihood are already vulnerable in pre-disaster contexts. Poor
non-migrant households with no additional source of income (remittances)
will lack the ability to cope and recover from disaster and extreme
events, leaving them worse off than they were before the event.
Therefore, the poorest non-recipient households face the highest risk of
recovery and adaptation, and impact due to climate change.
is a general consensus on the impact of remittances on poverty
reduction. However, literature specifically on impact of remittance on
poverty and inequality in context of acute and slow onset environmental
change is inadequate to make judgments as to the benefits or costs for
Therefore, the objective of this study is to:
First, synthesize existing evidence to understand to what extent
economic and social remittances, on both international and internal
levels, reach the poorest among the entrapped.
• Second, distill
and comment how these remittances affect the resilience of the poor,
including those who move as well as those who are voluntarily immobile
• Third, distill good practices, lessons and give
recommendations on how benefits of remittances can be maximized and
negative impacts mitigated in the context of the poorest and entrapped.
See detailed Terms of Reference here.
submit proposals no later than January 2, 2017 to: Hanspeter Wyss,
Focal Point for the Thematic Working Group "Environmental Change and
Migration", KNOMAD Secretariat at firstname.lastname@example.org and; Kanta Kumari Rigaud, Lead Environmental Specialist, Climate Policy Team email@example.com.