Effective VET depends on the availability of good teachers, trainers, and instructors. Therefore, training of trainers (ToT) is an important project activity in VET-related development initiatives. Industrialised countries have developed official structures and institutions for the permanent furtherance and in-service training of any kind of teachers and trainers at all levels. This type of training schemes are usually absent in low-income countries, whereas transition countries are struggling hard to re-establish their ToT system and adapt it to contemporary requirements. As a result, a majority of development initiatives need to develop their own training schemes in order to adequately prepare VET teachers and trainers for their jobs.
IntroductionLinksDocuments, Tools, etc.________________________________________________
[Mr. Rudolf Batliner, Head of Liechtenstein Development Service - LED, has contributed to the following introduction]
The teachers and/or instructors are a key component of technical education or vocational training. They are the persons who should create favourable conditions for learning. They design and facilitate the teaching learning process – the key process of the VET system. Therefore, teachers need both expertise in their field and teaching skills for theoretical and the practical aspects of their field. In addition, the future teachers should acquire the responsibility for keeping up to date with trends in their field because technical development in all occupational fields never stops. To this end, technical and vocational education teachers, on a full-time or part-time basis, should have access to in-service training programmes including
continuous review and updating of knowledge, competencies and skills; continuous updating of specialized professional skills and knowledge; periodic work experience in the relevant occupational sector (see also: UNESCO’s Revised Recommendation concerning Technical and Vocational Education (2001), http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001406/140603e.pdf)
Regarding teaching skills in many countries we face the same problems. Many technical teachers never had a chance to attend a proper training on teaching methodology. This situation is even worsened by the fact that only few of them experienced any other method than lecturing. In addition, the focus basically is on teaching and not on learning and even less on performing.
The purpose of ToT is to increase the capacity of teachers to design and implement training courses that improve the learners' performance on the job. Depending on the organizational set-up the ToT can target either master trainers (e.g. staff of a technical university) who then become multipliers, or technical teachers directly. Teaching in a classroom or a workshop is a so-called complex behaviour which is best shaped and acquired through experiential learning. Modelling good practice and coaching the "learning by doing" of the learners are effective ways of developing both competent and confident trainers. They help to break deeply rooted patterns and beliefs about teaching and learning. Clear criteria help the learners to self- and peer-assess their performance.
Performance oriented approach to teacher training
This specific approach to ToT has been developed at the Training Institute for Technical Education (TITI) in Nepal and has been transferred successfully to many countries in Asia, Africa, Latin-America and Eastern Europe.
The approach basically defines a series of aspects of the ToT as key components:
Practical organisational issues
UNESCO has launched a high-priority Initiative on Teacher Training in sub-Saharan Africa for 2006-2015. TTISSA is designed to help countries synchronize their policies, teacher education, and labour practices with national development priorities for Education for All (EFA).This Initiative will assist the continent’s 46 sub-Saharan countries in restructuring national teacher policies and teacher education. It aims to increase the number of teachers and improve the quality of teaching. Seventeen countries are participating in the first phase of the initiative.