Corruption can take
many forms: petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and takes place at the implementation end of public services when public officials meet the public. Grand corruption usually involves high ranking officials diverting public resources or plundering natural resources for their own interest. Political corruption typically refers to state capture and political party financing. Systemic corruption includes corruptive practices and processes at different State levels, which can be performed by multiple State actors and institutions.
The damaging effects of corruption regarding development aid are well known: fraudulent investment, misappropriation of public funds for private ends, petty corruption that acts like a tax with no redistribution, impunity that strains the credibility of the legal system and hence of the entire State apparatus. Poor people are affected especially hard because they have little negotiating power and no resources to offset the lack of infrastructure and public services caused by corruption. Corruption is undermining peace and security because it causes dissatisfaction, mistrust and can lead to conflicts.
SDC follows a combination of approaches to fight corruption: It works with
State institutions in partner countries to reduce opportunities for corruption, to increase transparency and financial management capacities, to enhance the parliament's oversight role and the judiciary's role to stop the vicious cycle of impunity. It supports
public oversightinstitutions and initiatives, such as for example anti-corruption commissions or citizens, civil society initiatives and media watch dog role. SDC is also promoting integrity of the business sector. Corruption is either addressed with specific anticorruption programmes or as a transversal theme in SDC programmes, by promoting the principles of transparency and accountability. At the
global level SDC is engaged in various anti-corruption initiatives (e.g. the Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (StAR) of World Bank Group and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime) and is supporting international competence centres. It has for example a partnership with Transparency International, U4 Anticorruption Resource Centre, and the International Centre for Asset Recovery in Switzerland. And importantly, SDC takes measures to prevent or combat corruption
within its own institution and programmes, including the collaboration with implementing partners, and it advocates for a
coherent anti-corruption policyof Switzerland. In this regard SDC is engaged in combatting illicit financial flows and promotes upright conduct of Swiss private sector operating in partner countries. SDC, in collaboration with other departments is highly committed for the return of stolen assets to source countries.
Below you will find the SDC strategy on fighting corruption and an overview of responsible SDC units and survey of SDC programmes, a compilation of engaged International and multilateral organisations, links to training and resource centres and an a series of publications.
Water integrity and the fight against corruption allow for effective governance in the water sector with keeping costs in check. lt is a prerequisite for the efficient achievement of safe Water and adequate sanitation for all. Following a human based approach, this initiative aims to increase water integrity by supporting advocacy work at the global and national level. In the four countries, specific multi-stakeholder coalitions are active to increase transparency, accountability and participation at the national, regional and local level.
Transparency International (TI) is the leading global Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) working against corruption. It has succeeded in placing and maintaining the fight against corruption on the international agenda. TI’s overall goal is to stop corruption and promote transparency, accountability and integrity at all levels and across all sectors of society. To achieve this, the TI Movement focuses on promoting reforms within the public and private sectors that increase transparency and accountability, and on empowering civil society to advocate for and monitor such reforms.
Asset recovery is an important priority on the global agenda. Demand for expertise on asset recovery remains high around the world. Asset recovery is a priority for SDC, the Message 2014-2017 and Switzerland as a financial center with its pioneering role in general. This contribution will support the Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (StAR). StAR is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) that supports international efforts to end safe havens for corrupt funds.
To avoid resource curse outcomes in developing countries, including those where Swiss companies operate and where Swiss development agencies are active, greater transparency, accountability and oversight are required. A partnership with the Natural Resource Governance Institute will pursue this aim by advancing global transparency norms, strengthening accountability actors, and informing policymakers with evidence-based analyses for improving governance in this crucial sector. The project is relevant in particular to priority countries identified for an increased level of action by the Federal Council on March 26, 2014: Bolivia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Afghanistan, and Mongolia.
The International Centre for Asset Recovery (ICAR) is an independent not-for-profit competence center in asset recovery with a mission to support developing countries to recover stolen assets. SDC has supported ICAR since its creation in 2006 given its international importance as a strategic partner in asset recovery. The Asset Recovery agenda is of high political importance to Switzerland because of its pioneering role in taking legal measures against stolen assets deposited in Swiss banks and in returning them to their rightful owners.
There is strong awareness among the global community that corruption poses serious threats to development goals and that international development agencies have a common interest in managing and reducing, to the extent possible, the internal and external risks to which aid activities are exposed, in order to obtain effective use of aid resources.
This Recommendation of the Council for Development Co-operation Actors on Managing the Risk of Corruption (Recommendation) promotes a broad vision of how international development agencies can work to address corruption, including the bribery of foreign public officials, and to support these agencies in meeting their international and regional commitments in the area of anti-corruption.
Tools to Support Transparency in Local Governance
This toolkit introduces the National Integrity System (NIS) concept and approach and provides those implementing the NIS with the necessary information and tools to conduct the NIS assessment. The annexes also contain key operational information for this assignment, such as interview guidelines, a draft NIS workshop agenda and several specific guiding documents for the research component of the project.
An Integrity Pact is a tool that seeks to improve
transparency, accountability and integrity in public
procurement. It was developed by Transparency
International to help governments, businesses and civil
society fight corruption in public contracting.
The purpose of this publication is to contribute to the
already existing literature on Integrity Pacts, but from
a civil society perspective.
Anti-corruption kit: 15 ideas for young activists
With more than 100 national chapters worldwide and an international secretariat in Berlin, the organisation works with partners in government, business and civil society to put effective measures in place to tackle corruption.
Transparency International developed the National Integrity System approach as a comprehensive means of assessing a country’s anti-corruption efficacy sector by sector. It allows a nuanced analysis of national efforts to stamp out corruption.
Each year TI score countries on how corrupt their public sectors are seen to be.
Through our Global Corruption Barometer, tens of thousands of people around the globe are asked about their views and experiences, making it the only worldwide public opinion survey on corruption.
U4 shares research and evidence to help international development actors get sustainable results on corruption related topics.